[116] A Nanjing mosque was built by the Xuande Emperor. [20] The 1916 Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 8 said that Chinese Muslims always called themselves Huihui or Huizi, and that neither themselves nor other people called themselves Han, and they disliked people calling them Dungan. The mosques were similar to Buddhist Temples, and incense was burned inside. Qinghai and Ningxia were created out of Gansu province, and the Kuomintang appointed Hui Generals as military Governors of all three provinces. [292] Problems also exist between Chinese-speaking Hui and Tibetan Hui (the Tibetan-speaking Kache minority of Muslims).[295]. Fyrwald’s parents are originally from Norway, where he also lived. [318] The Najiahu village in Ningxia is named after this family, descended from Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues'. GZSL,juan1272, QL 52.1.8 (February 25, 1787). The Dungan people were descendants of the Muslim rebels and fled to the Russian Empire after the rebellion was suppressed by the joint forces of Hunan Army led by Zuo Zongtang (左宗棠) with support from local Hui elites. This led to many Muslim foreign fleeing to Java and other places in Southeast Asia to escape the massacres, spreading the Islamic religion. [318], Zhao nuxu is a practice where the son-in-law moves in with the wife's family. He received his BFA from the Guangzhou Academy of Fine Art China and his MFA from the Academy of Art University, San Francisco. Other than its grotesqueness, it’s the rude reminder of the news (fake, some still believe) that it’s the ingestion of bat soup in a Chinese home leaving the world with a virus still killing millions and in its wake, crippling economies. Al-Mansur sent 7,000 cavalry. [281] Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries. Berufserfahrung, Kontaktdaten, Portfolio und weitere Infos: Erfahr mehr – oder kontaktier Ying-Chen Wu direkt bei XING. Oldendorff Carriers are one of the world’s largest dry bulk shipping companies, shipping and transhipping over to 300 million tons of bulk cargo every year. Hui people who adopt foreign names may not use their Muslim names. This was viewed as Daoist or Buddhist influence. [333], Endogamy is practiced by Hui, who mainly marry among themselves rather than with Muslims from other sects. your own Pins on Pinterest The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The husband reported this to an official and the next day the Muslims were massacred with the exception of a few Muslim girls who were married off to Han Chinese. The traditional expression Huihui, its use now largely restricted to rural areas, would sound quaint, if not outright demeaning, to modern urban Chinese Muslims.[23]. [280] Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the 1934 Battle of Kashgar massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China. [255] China does not enforce the law against children attending Mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang. Faced with the devastating An Lushan Rebellion, Tang Emperor Suzong wrote to Al-Mansur requesting armed assistance. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. [351], Muslims have served extensively in the Chinese military for a long time in Chinese history, as both officials and soldiers, often filling the more distinguished military positions. [205][206][207] The native Hui Muslims of Gansu province led by general Ma Anliang sided with the Qing and prepared to attack the anti-Qing revolutionaries of Xi'an city. Arab were white cap, Persians black cap and Jews blue cap Huihui. [80] In 1715 in Yunnan province, few Han Chinese married Hui women and converted to Islam. Before the "Yihewani" movement, a Chinese Muslim sect inspired by the Middle Eastern reform movement, Northern Hui Sufis blended Taoist teachings and martial arts practices with Sufi philosophy. Photography and China by Claire Roberts from Reaktion Books Drawing on works in museums, and archival and private collections across China, the United States, Foi lançado na China em 27 de julho de 2017. [174] During the Qing Salar Muslim men shaved their hair bald while when they went to journey in public they put on artificial queues. A DAREDEVIL who called himself "China's First Rooftopper" plunged to his death off the roof of a skyscraper as this video with over 15 million views reportedly shows. [30][188], The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) erupted over a pricing dispute over bamboo poles that a Han merchant was selling to a Hui. [233] Newspapers in China reported the visit. Chantou Hui ("turbaned Hui") for Uyghurs, Dongxiang Hui and Sala Hui for Dongxiang and Salar people, and sometimes even Han Hui (漢回) ("Chinese Hui") for the (presumably Chinese-speaking) Muslims more assimilated into the Chinese mainstream society. The Chinese manufacturing capability alone poses an ever-present threat, its tentacles already ensnaring vulnerable, unsuspecting or naive developing countries. Historians see the violent Chinese backlash that happened at the end of the Yuan dynasty against the wealth of the Muslim and Semu as something inevitable, however anti-Muslim and anti-Semu laws had already been passed by the Yuan dynasty. Stilista statunitense. Muslim General Ma Rulong, who surrendered and join the Qing campaign to crush the rebel Muslims, was promoted and became the most powerful military official in the province. Modern Travellers Meet China's Frontier Peoples » Brill Online", "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. [337], In Beijing Oxen street Gladney found 37 Han–Hui couples, two of which were had Hui wives and the other 35 had Hui husbands. [182][183], The Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 8 stated that the Dungan and Panthay revolts by the Muslims was set off by racial antagonism and class warfare, rather than religion. [280] Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China. Hui people consider other Hui who do not observe Islamic practices to still be Hui. [156] Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande,[157] and foreign Central Asian Uighur, Mongol (Tatar),[158] and Muslim Semu[159][160] concubines were kept by him. Yunnan and Kokang received Hui refugees from Panglong driven out by the Japanese. [350], Hui have had female Imams, called Nu Ahong for centuries. var googletag = googletag || {}; Her father, Herbert, was a salesman and her mother, Juanita, worked many odd jobs to help support the family. The main family disowned him and his descendants for converting to Islam and marrying a foreign woman and struck them off their genealogy. [244] Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division which was sent by Ma Bufang. Jun 25, 2020 - This Pin was discovered by per. The Qais born Supterintendent of Taxes for Persian and the Island, Jamal al-din Ibrahim Tibi had a son who was sent in 1297-1305 as an envoy to China. [192] Hui rebels battled Turkic Muslims in addition to fighting the Qing. [368], Citing hajj as a reason to flee, Mecca became the new dwelling place of Hui General Ma Bufang. Muslims and Christians are brothers."[308]. [170] The Muslim Ming loyalists were then crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin, Ding Guodong, and Turumtay killed in battle. Many Hui Muslim civilians were killed by Uyghur rebellion troops known as Kizil massacre (1933). Beginning with the arrival of Robert Morrison in 1807 and ending in 1953 with the departure of Arthur Matthews and Dr. Rupert Clark of the China Inland Mission, thousands of foreign Protestant missionaries and their families, lived and worked in China to spread Christianity, establish schools, and work as medical missionaries The native Hui Muslims of Xi'an (Shaanxi province) joined the Han Chinese revolutionaries in slaughtering the entire 20,000 Manchu population of Xi'an. It could have been a corruption of Musalman or another name for Persians. [85][340][341], In Gansu province in the 1800s, a Muslim Hui woman married into the Han Chinese Kong lineage of Dachuan, which was descended from Confucius. [39], For some Uyghurs, there is barely any difference between Hui and Han. Cu Cu/Jinbun was said to be Chinese. [143] The Ming used Hui troops to crush the Miao and other aboriginal rebels during the Miao Rebellions, and settled in Changde, where their descendants remain. Wealthy Han Chinese seized Manchu girls to become their slaves[208] and poor Han Chinese troops seized young Manchu women to be their wives. "Hui Chinese" redirects here. Despite a substantial population loss, the military power of Hui increased, because some Hui who had defected to the Qing side were granted high positions in the Imperial Army. [325], General Ma Fuxiang invested in new editions of Confucian and Islamic texts. [21], In the Soviet Union and its successor countries, the term "Dungans" (дунгане) became the standard name for the descendants of Chinese-speaking Muslims who emigrated to the Russian Empire (mostly to today's Kyrgyzstan and south-eastern Kazakhstan) in the 1870s and 1880s. [5] In fact, the Hui ethnic group is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language.[6]. [349], Hui warlord Ma Bufang built a girls' school in Linxia that taught modern secular subjects. The Ming Yongle emperor issued decrees of protection from individuals and officials in mosques such as Quanzhou mosques and his father before him Ming Taizu had support from Muslim generals in his wars to reunify the country so he showed tolerance to them. [2] For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China[3] and have given rise to their own variation of Chinese cuisine. Sayyid So-fei-er discovered that Arabia and Islam were. [28], While Huihui or Hui remained a generic name for all Muslims in Imperial China, specific terms were sometimes used to refer to particular groups, e.g. [161] Ni'ergan (你兒干, 你兒幹) was the name of one of his Muslim concubines.[160][162]. During the Afaqi Khoja revolts Turkic Muslim raiders from Kokand abducted Hui Muslims and sold them as slaves in Central Asia. Many Muslim Salar joined the army in the Republic era; they and Dongxiang who have joined the army are described as being given "eating rations" meaning military service.[359][360]. [263][264][265][266] The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs. They were all judged according to the "five mutilating punishments" and then executed with their carcasses throwing into pig troughs. China's deadliest special forces operative settles into a quiet life on the sea. [16], Kublai Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China Huihui when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food:[17], "Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". [287][288] However, in recent years, the Hui Salafi movement has begun to receive massive investments from the Gulf states like Saudi Arabia and Qatar, which functioned Salafism as the major Islamic sect, resulted with expansion of Hui Salafism and a number of Hui Salafis started to share sympathy with Uyghur separatism, which was a major change from the past. The Yuan dynasty's violent end saw repeated slaughters of Muslims until the Ming dynasty in 1368. The Suharto regime banned talk about this after Mangaradja Parlindungan, a Sumatran Muslim engineer wrote about it in 1964. Gresik was ruled by a person from China's Guangdong province and it had a thousand Chinese families who moved there in the 14th century with the name Xin Cun (New Village) in Chinese. Daud Khalifa) during the revolt. "[196], Allès wrote that the relationship between Hui and Han peoples continued normally in the Henan area, with no ramifications from the rebellions. The Foreign Minister, Prime Minister, and President of Turkey met with the Chinese Muslim delegation after they came via Egypt in May 1939. Time Difference. They claimed Islam's superiority to "barbarian" religions. This resulted in anti-Mongol sentiment among Muslims so some anti-Mongol rebels in the mid 14th century were joined by Muslims. No minarets were available and no chanting accompanied the call to prayer. One Sufi sect circulated an anti-Salafi pamphlet in Arabic. Find the best restaurants, food, and dining in 25746 Heide, Germany, make a reservation, or order delivery on Yelp: search reviews of 139 Heide restaurants by price, type, or location. They are the world's only female Imams. [62] Many clans across Fujian had genealogies that demonstrated Hui ancestry. [100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][full citation needed][110] The Muslim women in Guangzhou were called either Persian women (波斯婦) or Pusaman (菩薩蠻) which may be from "Mussulman" or "Bussulman" which means Muslim in Persian. Haotian Wu (The University of Sydney, Australia ) David Lee (Paris VI, France) ... United States and Peking University after July, China) Todd Oliynyk (Monash University, Australia) Yihong Du (University of New England, Australia) Daisuke Kawagoe ... Chris van der Heide (University of Queensland, Australia) Ziqian Zhang (Nanjing University, China) The PLA used Hui soldiers, who formally had served under Ma Bufang, as well as Salafi soldiers, to crush the Tibetan revolt in Amdo during the 1959 Tibetan uprising.[364]. 100% satisfaction guaranteed. After the Persian garrison full and the rebellion was crushed, the common people started a slaughter of the Pu family and all Muslims: All of the Western peoples were annihilated, with a number of foreigners with large noses mistakenly killed while for three days the gates were closed and the executions were carried out. Yaqub Beg seized Aksu from Hui forces and forced them north of the Tien Shan mountains, massacring the Dungans (Hui). is a common cry spread across social media among Uyghur extremists. [71], Another description applies to the Hui people of Yunnan and Northwestern China, whose origin might result from the convergence of Mongol, Turkic, Iranian or other Central Asian settlers who were recruited by the Yuan Dynasty either as officials (the semu), who formed the second-highest stratum in the Yuan ethnic hierarchy (after the Mongols but above Chinese) or artisans. [316] An example of this is Pai Hsien-yung, a Hui author in America, who adopted the name Kenneth. In English and German was noted as early as the 1830s, Dungan, in various spellings, as referring to the Hui people of Xinjiang. After school, he attended the University of Delaware, where he received a bachelor of science in chemical engineering.He also completed the advanced management program at the Harvard Business School. Hui people usually have a Chinese name and a Muslim name in Arabic, although the Chinese name is used primarily. Only low status Han would convert to marry a Hui woman. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. In response to the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting Chinese state-run media attacked Charlie Hebdo for publishing the cartoons insulting Muhammad, with the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper Global Times said the attack was "payback" for what it characterised as Western colonialism and accusing Charlie Hebdo of trying to incite a clash of civilizations. [317] Common Hui surnames:[318][319][320][321], A legend in Ningxia states that four common Hui surnames—Na, Su, La, and Ding—originate with the descendants of Nasruddin, a son of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, who "divided" the ancestor's name (Nasulading, in Chinese) among themselves.[323]. The foreign element, although greatly diluted, came primarily from Persian (Bosi) traders, who brought Islam to China. [185], The Panthay Rebellion started when a Muslim from a Han family that had converted to Islam, Du Wenxiu, led some Hui to attempt to drive the Manchu out of China and establish a unified Han and Hui state. The Qing administration also preferred to use Hui in Xinjiang as police. These include the Taiping Rebellion in Southern China (whose leaders were Evangelical Christians of ethnic Han Chinese Hakka and Zhuang background), the Muslim Rebellion in Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia in Northwestern China and Yunnan, and the Miao people Revolt in Hunan and Guizhou. He has been in practice for more than 20 years. [303] Ma Bufang received audiences of Christian missionaries, who sometimes preached the Gospel. [63] These clans inhabited Fujian, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. [209] Young pretty Manchu girls were also seized by Hui Muslims of Xi'an during the massacre and brought up as Muslims.[210]. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. [338] Data was collected in different Beijing districts. [55] It identifies Hui by their ancestry only, and includes those who do not practice Islam. [4] The Hui predominantly speak Chinese,[2] while maintaining some Arabic and Persian phrases. [358] Hui troops also fought western armies for the first time in the Boxer Rebellion, winning battles including the Battle of Langfang and Battle of Beicang. This year's inaugural list of Hong Kong's 40 Richest tells a story of immense success and adaptability. It was particularly prevalent in Gansu. Both Saifuding and Amiliding were murdered by another Muslim called Nawuna in 1362 so he then took control of Quanzhou and the Ispah garrison for 5 more years until his defeat by the Yuan. [44][45] The name "Pusuman zi" (pusuman script), was used to refer to the script that the HuiHui (Muslims) were using. [26] The name "Hui Hui" was applied to them, and eventually became the name applied to Muslims. For the group of dialects spoken on the Anhui/Zhejiang/Jiangxi borders, see, Two Hui women and a man wearing traditional dress, Anti-Muslim persecution by the Yuan dynasty and Ispah rebellion, Recent Repressions Accusations by the West. After the Communist victory, and evacuation of the Kuomintang to Taiwan, Hui people continued to serve in the military of the Republic as opposed to the Communist-led People's Republic. Some Hui people claimed that the first Ming Emperor Ming Taizu might have been a Muslim,[116] but this is rejected by most scholars. [13], Huihui (回回) was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Ming and Qing dynasties. He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat". . [47] They have also been called "Chinese Mussulmans", when Europeans wanted to distinguish them from Han Chinese. [216][217][218], During the Second Sino-Japanese war the Japanese destroyed many mosques. The Manchu official Shuxing'a started an anti-Muslim massacre which led to the Panthay Rebellion. This practice helped increase the population of Hui. [80] In 1715 in Yunnan province, a few Han Chinese descendants of Confucius surnamed Kong married Hui women and converted to Islam. Bai Chongxi, a Hui general, was appointed to the post of Minister of National Defence, the highest military position in the Republic of China. Islam came to China during the Tang dynasty via Iranian traders, who were primarily concerned with trading and commerce and less concerned with spreading Islam. Kangxi claimed that Chinese Muslims inside China such as Turkic Muslims in Qinghai (Kokonor) were plotting with Galdan, who he falsely claimed converted to Islam. Tibetans also boycotted Muslim owned businesses. [116] The speculation of the Zhengde Emperor becoming a Muslim is based in part on his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin. [57], Throughout history the identity of Hui people has been fluid, changing as was convenient. Zooming In by Wu Hung from Reaktion Books All Chicago e-books are on sale at 30% off with the code EBOOK30. In recent years more of these clans identified as Hui, increasing the official population. It could very well be called the “New Normal World War” – one without the need for military intervention. [46], The term Chinese Muslim is sometimes used to refer to Hui people, given that they speak Chinese, in contrast to, e.g., Turkic-speaking Salars. Quanzhou's end as an international trading port was rapid as in 1357 rebellions borke out in central China so the Persian merchants Amin ud-din (Amiliding) and Saif ud-din (Saifuding) led soldiers to take over Quanzhou. [331], In 1844 "The Chinese repository, Volume 13" was published, including an account of an Englishman who stayed in the Chinese city of Ningbo, where he visited the local mosque. While Hui are not Han, they consider themselves to be Chinese and include themselves in the larger group of Zhongyuan ren. T'o Ming's forces were defeated by Yaqub, who planned to conquer Dzungharia. Community support makes a difference - Best Pan Asian near China Wu - Mr. Khiem, Yen Yen, Xin-Chao-Restaurant, Bunthai, Jin Phönix, Chi Wan, AsiaTU, Ho Tay, asia-instant, Vinchi, Xing Xing, Huy Tran Asia-Bistro, Asia Restaurant Huang, Asia-Bistro Bambus, Goldener Drachen, Onkel Le, New Asia Doan, Asia Bistro, Asia Lam, La Vong, Restaurant East, Pazific, Hoai Huong, Restaurant Kim, Asia House [22], The Sunni Gedimu and the Yihewani burned incense during worship. In 1070, the Song emperor, Shen-tsung (Shenzong), invited a group of 5,300 young Arabs, under the leadership of Amir Sayyid So-fei-er (this name being mentioned in the Chinese source) of Bukhara, to settle in China. Marketing the Turkistan Islamic Party", "Terrorism and Islamic Radicalization in Central Asia A Compendium of Recent Jamestown Analysis", "Chinese Salafism and the Saudi Connection", "Close Encounters of an Inner Asian Kind: Tibetan–Muslim Co-Existence and Conflict in Tibet Past and Present", "ISIS uses soothing music as a recruiting tool — in China", "The completion of the idea of dual loyalty towards China and Islam", "Plurality and Unity in the Configuration of the Chinese People", "The Cross-Cultural Patterns of Interracial Marriage", "Muslim women do it their way in Ningxia", "Chinese Muslims in Malaysia History and Development", "Islam in traditional China: a short history to 1800", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hui_people&oldid=999233009, Ethnic groups officially recognized by China, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2018, Articles with disputed statements from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Articles with incomplete citations from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ma Lian-yuan (馬聯元) (محمد نور الحق إبن لقمان الصيني, Muḥammad Nūr al-Ḥaqq ibn Luqmān as-Ṣīnī) (1841–1903) Islamic scholar. Hui forces were known for their anti-communist sentiment, and had fought for the Kuomintang against the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, and against rebels during the Ili Rebellion. SIGN OUT. Wochenmarkt Heide. The Chinese Muslim Association counts these people as Muslims. [25] As an influx of foreigners, such as Persians, Jews and Christians, most but not all of them were Muslims who came from western regions, they were labelled as Semu people, but were also mistaken by Chinese as Uyghur, due to them coming from the west (Uyghur lands). [59], Some Hui clans around Quanzhou in Fujian, such as the Ding and Guo families, identify themselves by nationality but do not practice Islam. He then converted to Islam. Yaqub intended to seize all Dungan territory. Or those with junk status. Hui put Kuomintang Blue Sky with a White Sun party symbols on their Halal restaurants and shops. Send Money reliably find a Western Union® Agent location at Suederstr 26 Heide, Schleswig Holstein 25746 to thousands of locations around the world or directly to a bank account. [130] Qais was the island of Kish and its king Jamal al-Din Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-Tibi briefly seized control of Hormuz while he traded with China and India and earned great wealth from it. [29][30], Some scholars also say that some Hui used to call themselves 回漢子 (Hui Hanzi) "Muslim Han" but the Communist regime separated them from other Chinese and placed them into a separate ethnicity, "Huizu". [306], The Muslim Ma Zhu wrote "Chinese religions are different from Islam, but the ideas are the same. Reportedly in 1862 the number of Hui in China proper numbered 30,000,000.